International Educational Review


Research and Publication Ethics

The International Educational Review (IER) is committed to publishing and widely disseminating high-quality content. It is critical that the editorial operations of IER be governed by rigorous ethical standards that are both transparent and fair. We recognize that the scholarly publishing ecosystem is complex and includes editors, authors, reviewers, and publishers. Our expectation is that all involved have a shared understanding and acceptance of IER 's policies on publication ethics and malpractice. Our policies are closely aligned with COPE’s (Committee on Publication Ethics) Core Practices document, which can be accessed at COPE Core Practices

Research Ethics

When reporting on research that involves human subjects, human material, human tissues, or human data, authors must obtain approval from the local institutional review board or other appropriate ethics committee before undertaking the research to confirm the study meets national and international guidelines. As a minimum, a statement including the project identification code, date of approval, and name of the ethics committee or institutional review board must be stated in Section ‘Institutional Review Board Statement’ of the article.

For non-interventional studies (e.g. surveys, questionnaires, social media research), all participants must be fully informed if anonymity is assured, why the research is being conducted, how their data will be used and if there are any risks associated.

The submitted manuscript will be scrutinized by the editorial office and upon request, documentary evidence (blank consent forms and any related discussion documents from the ethics board) must be supplied.

Publication Ethics and Malpractice Statement

The editors of this journal enforce a rigorous peer-review process together with strict ethical policies and standards to ensure to add high-quality scientific works to the field of scholarly publication. Unfortunately, cases of plagiarism, data falsification, image manipulation, inappropriate authorship credit, and the like, do arise. The editors of IER take such publishing ethics issues very seriously and are trained to proceed in such cases with a zero-tolerance policy.

International Standards for Editors

The editor-in-chief’s responsibility is to determine which submissions to IER will be published. He ensures that decisions are made only on the basis of the manuscript’s merit and that the author’s race, gender, religious or political beliefs, ethnicity, or citizenship are not considered.


IER reveals information concerning a submitted manuscript only to the corresponding author, editorial board members, or the publisher as is required or otherwise appropriate.

Disclosure and conflicts of interest

IER 's editors will not use unpublished information disclosed in a submitted manuscript for their own research purposes without the authors’ explicit written consent. Editors will recuse themselves from monitoring manuscripts in which they have conflicts of interest resulting from competitive, collaborative, or other relationships/connections with any of the authors, companies, or institutions connected to the papers.

  • The Editorial Board must keep information pertaining to all submitted manuscripts confidential.
  • The Editorial Board is responsible for making publication decisions for submitted manuscripts.
  • The Editorial Board must strive to meet the needs of readers and authors.
  • The Editorial Board must evaluate manuscripts only for their intellectual content.
  • The Editorial Board must strive to constantly improve IER 's quality.
  • The Editorial Board must maintain the integrity of the academic record.
  • The Editorial Board must disclose any conflicts of interest and preclude business needs from compromising intellectual and ethical standards.
  • The Editorial Board must always be willing to publish corrections, clarifications, retractions, and apologies when needed.

International Standards for authors

  • The potential conflict of interest of the researcher(s) should be revealed in the manuscript before submission.
  • Authors should accurately present their research findings and include an objective discussion of the importance of their findings.
  • Research results should be correctly stated, and the importance of results should be discussed objectively.
  • For appropriate replication of the study, the methodology should be adequately detailed.
  • Raw data used in the statistical analysis should be readily available for reviewers and editors if requested.
  • Nobody can submit his/her manuscript to more than one journal at the same time.
  • When an author discovers a significant error or inaccuracy in his/her own published work, it is the author’s obligation to promptly notify the journal editor or publisher and cooperate with the editor to retract or correct the paper.
  • Authors must notify IER of any conflicts of interest.
  • The submitted manuscripts should not contain any information that has already been published. If you include already published figures or images, please obtain the necessary permission from the copyright holder to publish under the CC-BY license.
  • Plagiarism, data fabrication, and image manipulation are not tolerated.

Plagiarism includes copying text, ideas, images, or data from another source, even from your own publications, without giving any credit to the original source.

Reuse of text that is copied from another source must be between quotes and the original source must be cited. If a study’s design or the manuscript’s structure or language has been inspired by previous works, these works must be explicitly cited.

If plagiarism is detected during the peer review process, the manuscript will be rejected. If plagiarism is detected after publication, we will retract the paper.

If irregular image manipulation is identified and confirmed during the peer review process, we will reject the manuscript. If irregular image manipulation is identified and confirmed after publication, we will retract the paper.

Irregular manipulation includes: 1) introduction, enhancement, moving, or removing features from the original image; 2) grouping of images that should obviously be presented separately (e.g., from different parts of the same gel, or from different gels); or 3) modifying the contrast, brightness or color balance to obscure, eliminate or enhance some information.

Our in-house editors will investigate any allegations of publication misconduct and may contact the authors’ institutions or funders if necessary. If evidence of misconduct is found, appropriate action will be taken to correct or retract the publication. Authors are expected to comply with the best ethical publication practices when publishing with IER .

The papers before being sent for reviewing are first checked by anti-plagiarism software ( We define plagiarism as a case in which a paper reproduces another work with at least 10% similarity and without citation. 10% does not include references and quotations.

If evidence of plagiarism is found before/after acceptance or after the publication of the paper, the author will be offered a chance for rebuttal. If the arguments are not found to be satisfactory, the manuscript will be retracted and the author sanctioned from publishing papers for a period to be determined by the responsible editor(s).

Citation Policy

Authors should indicate the source of the information that they include in their research. This is valid for their own published writing. The source should be clearly cited, and any material required special permission should be stated.

  • Too much self-citation is not recommended.
  • To cite a study, researchers first need to read that study, and if it is a valuable source then they can cite it.
  • Researchers should not specially refer to their colleagues' and organization's publications.
  • Researchers should not refer to advertisements or advertorial material.

Author(s) Rights

It is important to check the policy for the journal to which you are submitting or publishing to establish your rights as an author. IER 's standard policies allow the following re-use rights:

  • The journal allows the author(s) to hold the copyright without restrictions.
  • The journal allows the author(s) to obtain publishing rights without restrictions.
  • You may do whatever you wish with the version of the article you submitted to the journal.
  • Once the article has been accepted for publication, you may post the accepted version of the article on your own personal website, your department’s website, or the repository of your institution without any restrictions.
  • You may use the published article for your own teaching needs.
  • You may use the article in a book authored or edited by you at any time after publication in the journal.
  • When posting or re-using the article please provide a link to the appropriate DOI for the published version of the article on IER.
  • Articles can be published at authors' personal and institutional websites with a link (DOI link) to IER 's website.
  • Articles can be presented at conferences, and they can be reproduced for the attendees.

Copyright without Restrictions

The journal allows the author(s) to hold the copyright without restrictions and will retain publishing rights without restrictions.

The submitted papers are assumed to contain no proprietary material unprotected by patent or patent application; responsibility for technical content and for protection of proprietary material rests solely with the author(s) and their organizations and is not the responsibility of the IER or its Editorial Staff. The main (first/corresponding) author is responsible for ensuring that the article has been seen and approved by all the other authors. It is the responsibility of the author to obtain all necessary copyright release permissions for the use of any copyrighted materials in the manuscript prior to the submission.

International Standards for Reviewers

  • IER 's reviewers must hold data concerning the articles confidential.
  • IER 's reviewers must clearly explain the reason behind the rejection of manuscripts.
  • IER 's reviewers must assess articles merely on behalf of their intellectual issues.
  • IER 's reviewers must accurately assess the articles based merely on their contribution to the academic world.
  • Reviewers must inform IER regarding every conflict of interest.
  • IER 's reviewers will not use the data/information in a manuscript assigned to them for their personal research.


IER makes every effort to ensure the accuracy of all the information (the “Content”) contained in our publications. However, IER makes no representations or warranties whatsoever as to the accuracy, completeness, or suitability for any purpose of the Content. Any opinions and views expressed in the publications are the opinions and views of the authors, and are not the views of or endorsed by IER. The accuracy of the Content should not be relied upon and should be independently verified with primary sources of information. IER shall not be liable for any losses, actions, claims, proceedings, demands, costs, expenses, damages, and other liabilities whatsoever or howsoever caused arising directly or indirectly in connection with, in relation to, or arising out of the use of the Content.