International Educational Review

The Flipped-based WebQuest Model (FWQ): An Innovative Approach for Teaching Grammar and Alleviating Students’ Anxiety

International Educational Review, Volume 2, Issue 1, April 2024, pp. 1-24
OPEN ACCESS VIEWS: 274 DOWNLOADS: 281 Publication date: 15 Apr 2024
Digital learning tools and web-based approaches have been widely used among educators to cope with learners’ needs and demands in the era of the technological revolution, especially after the COVID-19 pandemic. This study investigates how using the FWQ (Flipped-based WebQuest) model and WQ (WebQuest) with EFL preparatory students could influence their grammar proficiency and reduce their anxiety in language learning. The sample comprised 106 English as a Foreign Language (EFL) students in the preparatory stage. They were divided into two experimental groups (FWQ, WQ) and one control group. The first experimental group (n=35) studied through the FWQ model, the second (N=34) used WQ, and the control group (n=37) learned using traditional learning. A pre/post grammar test, a pre/post grammar anxiety scale and an FWQ questionnaire were used to assess the effect of the independent variables on EFL grammar proficiency. A paired sample T-test and ANOVA were run to calculate the improvement. The outcomes revealed that both FWQ and WQ are effective strategies, but the results are significant in the FWQ model due to the combination of Flipped and WebQuest learning.
Flipped learning (FL), WebQuests, Language proficiency, Anxiety, English as a Foreign Language (EFL).
Abdelghafar, S. M. A., Fernández Costales, A., & Domínguez, J. L. B. (2024). The Flipped-based WebQuest Model (FWQ): An Innovative Approach for Teaching Grammar and Alleviating Students’ Anxiety. International Educational Review, 2(1), 1-24.
  1. Abdelghafar, S. M. A., Belver Domínguez, J. L., & Fernández-Costales, A. (2022). A flipped-based webquest model as an alternative proposal for students of English as a foreign language in the Covid-19 era. The International Journal of Technologies in Learning, 29(2), 87–100.
  2. Al Asadi, S. S. (2020). Webquest: Iraqi students at Al Furat Al-Awsat Technical University as a case. Arab World English Journal (AWEJ), 6, 378–392.
  3. Almansour, E., & Kurt, M. (2022). Critical thinking for writing using Facebook under Covid-19 lockdown: A course model for English literature students. Frontiers in Psychology, 13.
  4. Awada, G., Burston, J., & Ghannage, R. (2019). Webquest on EFL students’ argumentative writing skills and their instructors’ perceptions. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 33(3), 275–300. 10.1080/09588221.2018.1558254
  5. Awada, G., Burston, J., & Ghannage, R. (2020). Effect of student team achievement division through webquest on EFL students’ argumentative writing skills and their instructors’ perceptions. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 33(3), 275–300.
  6. Aydin, S. (2008). An investigation on the language anxiety and fear of negative evaluation among Turkish EFL learners. Asian EFL Journal, April, 421–444.
  7. Aydin, S. (2016). Webquests as language-learning tools. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 29(4), 765–778.
  8. Bārdule, K. (2021). Applying flipped learning approach in EFL classroom in Liepaja Centre Primary School. Society. Integration. Education. Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference, 2, 72–83.
  9. Bergmann, J., & Sams, A. (2012). Flip your classroom reach every student in every class every day. International Society for Technology in Education.
  10. Bergmann, J., & Sams, A. (2013). Flip your students’ learning. Educational Leadership, 70(6), 16–20.
  11. Chang, D. Y.-S. (2023). Flipping EFL low-proficiency students’ learning: An empirical study. Language Teaching Research, 1–22.
  12. Chen, M. R. A., & Hwang, G. J. (2020). Effects of a concept mapping-based flipped learning approach on EFL students’ English speaking performance, critical thinking awareness and speaking anxiety. British Journal of Educational Technology, 51(3), 817–834.
  13. Cheng, Y. S. (2004). A measure of second language writing anxiety: Scale development and preliminary validation. Journal of Second Language Writing, 13(4), 313–335.
  14. Chou, C. P., Chen, K. W., & Hung, C. J. (2021). A study on flipped learning concerning learning motivation and learning attitude in language learning. Frontiers in Psychology, 12(September), 1–5.
  15. Dewaele, J.-M., Botes, E., & Greiff, S. (2022). Sources and effects of foreign language enjoyment, anxiety, and boredom: A structural equation modelling approach. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 1–19.
  16. Divjak, B., Rienties, B., Iniesto, F., Vondra, P., & Žižak, M. (2022). Flipped classrooms in higher education during the Covid-19 pandemic: Findings and future research recommendations. International Journal of Educational Technology in Higher Education, 19(1), 1–24.
  17. Dodge, B. (1995). Some thoughts about webquests.
  18. Dos Santos, L. M. (2022). Online learning after the Covid-19 pandemic: Learners’ motivations. Frontiers in Education, 7(879091), 1–13.
  19. Ebadi, S., & Rahimi, M. (2018). An exploration into the impact of webquest-based classroom on EFL learners’ critical thinking and academic writing skills: A mixed-methods study. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 1–35.
  20. Ekinci Çelikpazu, E., & Taşdemir, F. (2022). Grammar anxiety scale: The validity and reliability study. Participatory Educational Research, 9(4), 343–366.
  21. Elgeddawy, M. (2018). University students' attitude towards webquest: An empirical correlational study. IJASOS- International E-Journal of Advances in Social Sciences, 4(10), 207–215.
  22. Fernández-Carballo, M. V. (2022). Influence of flipped learning on attitudes towards a foreign language subject. Innoeduca. International Journal of Technology and Educational Innovation, 8(1), 44–58.
  23. Galindo-Dominguez, H. (2021). Flipped classroom in the educational system: Trend or effective pedagogical model compared to other methodologies? Educational Technology & Society, 24(3), 44–60.
  24. Gok, D., Bozoglan, H., & Bozoglan, B. (2021). Effects of online flipped classroom on foreign language classroom anxiety and reading anxiety. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 0(0), 1–21.
  25. Hadriana, A., & Adanan, M. (2020). M-webquest development: Reading comprehension of senior high school students in Indonesia. International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Learning, 15(3), 74–92.
  26. Halat, E. (2008). A good teaching technique: Webquests. The Clearing House: A Journal of Educational Strategies, Issues and Ideas, 81(3), 109–112.
  27. Horwitz, E. K., Horwitz, M. B., & Cope, J. (1986). Foreign language classroom anxiety. The Modern Language Journal, 70(2), 125–132.
  28. Hsia, L. H., Lin, Y. N., & Hwang, G. J. (2021). A creative problem solving-based flipped learning strategy for promoting students’ performing creativity, skills and tendencies of creative thinking and collaboration. British Journal of Educational Technology, 1–17.
  29. Hung, H. T. (2014). Flipping the classroom for English language learners to foster active learning. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 28(1), 81–96.
  30. Hung, H. T. (2016). Clickers in the flipped classroom: Bring your own device (BYOD) to promote student learning. Interactive Learning Environments, 1–13.
  31. Hwang, G. H., Chen, B., & Chen, S.-P. (2023). Impacts of digital game-based flipped teaching approach on learning effectiveness of the students with different prior knowledge levels. Interactive Learning Environments, 1–18.
  32. Hwang, W.-Y., Nurtantyana, R., & Hariyanti, U. (2023). Collaboration and interaction with smart mechanisms in flipped classrooms. Data Technologies and Applications.
  33. Karçiç, A., & Çetin, M. (2017). On the anxiety factor of speaking skill development among Bosnian learners. Turkish Studies. Turkish Studies, 10(11), 971–986.
  34. Kozlovskii, P., Tabolina, A., Kunina, O., Fokina, V., Yudina, I., & Sataev, P. (2021). Polytech webquest as an organization form of students project activities. Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing, 1328, 431–438.
  35. Li, S., He, J., Tao, Y., & Liu, X. (2022). The effects of flipped classroom approach in EFL teaching: Can we strategically use the flipped method to acquire communicative competence? Language Teaching Research, 136216882210815.
  36. Li, Z., & Li, J. (2022). Using the flipped classroom to promote learner engagement for the sustainable development of language skills: A mixed-methods study. Sustainability (Switzerland), 14(5983).
  37. Lin, C. J., & Hwang, G. J. (2018). A learning analytics approach to investigating factors affecting EFL students’ oral performance in a flipped classroom. Educational Technology and Society, 21(2), 205–219.
  38. Lindeiner-Stráský, K. von, Stickler, U., & Winchester, S. (2020). Flipping the flipped. The concept of flipped learning in an online teaching environment. Open Learning, 37(4), 1–17.
  39. Liu, F., Wang, X., & Izadpanah, S. (2023). The comparison of the efficiency of the lecture method and flipped classroom instruction method on EFL students’ academic passion and responsibility. SAGE Open, 13(2).
  40. Liu, M., & Yuan, R. (2021). Changes in and effects of foreign language classroom anxiety and listening anxiety on Chinese undergraduate students’ English proficiency in the Covid-19 context. Frontiers in Psychology, 12(670824).
  41. Maican, M. A., & Cocoradă, E. (2021). Online foreign language learning in higher education and its correlates during the Covid‐19 pandemic. Sustainability (Switzerland), 13(2), 1–21.
  42. March, T. (2004). What webquests are (really).
  43. Moorhouse, B. L. (2023). Teachers’ digital technology use after a period of online teaching. ELT Journal, 1–13.
  44. Parra, M., Morales, C., & Encalada, E. (2018). The effects of using technological strategies, webquest and miniquest on reading comprehension performance of EFL Ecuadorian students. 2018 Fifth International Conference on EDemocracy & E Government (ICEDEG), 322–327.
  45. Phoeun, M., & Sengsri, S. (2021). The effect of a flipped classroom with communicative language teaching approach on undergraduate students’ English speaking ability. International Journal of Instruction, 14(3), 1025–1042.
  46. Prilipko, E. (2018). Giving immediate feedback on students’ writing: another view on a flipped classroom. 11th Annual International Conference of Education, Research and Innovation (ICERI), 6502–6509.
  47. Salem, A. (2022). The impact of webquest-based sheltered instruction on improving academic writing skills, soft skills, and minimizing writing anxiety. Frontiers in Education, 7(799513), 1–18.
  48. Samiei, F., & Ebadi, S. (2021). Exploring EFL learners’ inferential reading comprehension skills through a flipped classroom. Research and Practice in Technology Enhanced Learning, 16(12), 1–18.
  49. Senali, M. G., Iranmanesh, M., Ghobakhloo, M., Gengatharen, D., Tseng, M. L., & Nilsashi, M. (2022). Flipped classroom in business and entrepreneurship education: A systematic review and future research agenda. International Journal of Management Education, 20(1).
  50. Sengul, F., & Bensen Bostanci, H. (2021). In-class versus out-of-class flipped classroom models in English as a foreign language writing. Propósitos y Representaciones, 9(1).
  51. Shvaikina, N. S. (2020). Webquest technology in teaching foreign languages in a technical university. VI International Forum on Teacher Education, 6th International Forum on Teacher Education (IFTE), 2367–2374.
  52. Singay, S. (2020). Flipped learning in English as a second language classroom: Bhutanese students’ perceptions and attitudes of flipped learning approach in learning grammar. Indonesian Journal of Applied Linguistics, 9(3), 666–674.
  53. Soltanabadi, M. I., Izadpanah, S., & Namaziandost, E. (2021). The effect of flipped classroom on Iranian adolescents: elementary EFL learners’ vocabulary recall and retention. Education Research International, 2021.
  54. Tambunan, H., Silitonga, M., & Sinaga, N. (2022). Parents involvement in elementary schools learning through flipped classrooms in Indonesia. Education 3-13.
  55. Tao, J., & Gao, X. (2022). Teaching and learning languages online: Challenges and responses. System, 107, 1–9.
  56. Thai, N. T. T., De Wever, B., & Valcke, M. (2020). Feedback: An important key in the online environment of a flipped classroom setting. Interactive Learning Environments Latest Articles, 1–14.
  57. Tran, H., Bui, H., & Kaur, A. (2022). A flipped classroom to personalize learning for engineering students. International Journal of Learning Technology, 17(2), 1.
  58. Uştuk, Ö., & Aydın, S. (2016). The effects of the use of paralinguistic cues on foreign language anxiety among English as a foreign language speakers. Innovation in Language Learning and Teaching, 1–14.
  59. Voigt, M., Fredriksen, H., & Rasmussen, C. (2020). Leveraging the design heuristics of realistic mathematics education and culturally responsive pedagogy to create a richer flipped classroom calculus curriculum. ZDM - Mathematics Education, 52(5), 1051–1062.
  60. Xu, Y., & Zou, Y. (2023). Covid-19 online teaching intervention and learning performance of college foreign language students. Frontiers in Psychology, 13, 1109032.
  61. Yoon, S., Kim, S., & Kang, M. (2018). Predictive power of grit, professor support for autonomy and learning engagement on perceived achievement within the context of a flipped classroom: SAGE, 21(3), 1–15.
  62. Yulian, R. (2021). The flipped classroom: improving critical thinking for critical reading of EFL learners in higher education. Studies in English Language and Education, 8(2), 508–522. 10.24815/siele.v8i2.18366
  63. Zakaria, S., & Yunus, M. M. (2020). Flipped classroom in improving ESL primary students’ tenses learning. International Journal of English Language and Literature Studies, 9(3), 151–160.
  64. Zhao, X., & Yang, Y. (2023). Impact of social media-supported flipped classroom on English as a foreign language learners’ writing performance and anxiety. Frontiers in Psychology, 13(January), 1–12.
  65. Zhou, X., Chen, S., Ohno, S., She, J., & Kameda, H. (2023). Motivational design for enhancing behavioral engagement in a flipped Chinese course. Asia Pacific Education Review, 1–15.
  66. Zou, D., & Xie, H. (2018). Flipping an English writing class with technology-enhanced just-in-time teaching and peer instruction. Interactive Learning Environments, 27(1), 1–16.
Creative Commons License